It is consequently not merely a necessity of precept but also a necessity of means. When the Redeemer declares (John, iii) that it is necessary to be born again of water and the Holy Ghost in order to enter the Kingdom of God, His words may be justly understood to mean that He includes all who are capable of having a right to this kingdom. Bab.) Theologians tell us consequently that what men would ordinarily declare water is valid baptismal material, whether it be water of the sea, or fountain, or well, or marsh; whether it be clear or turbid; fresh or salty; hot or cold; colored or uncolored. Finally, it is to be noted that only adults are capable of receiving the baptism of desire. x). I, De Sp. AddThis. 662, 2) declare that it is not licit to baptize them against the will of their parents; for their baptism would violate parental right, expose them to the danger of per-version, and be contrary to the practice of the Church. The pope, however, absolutely condemned the practice, and commanded that heretics on entering the Church should receive only the imposition of hands in cenitentiam. The Orientals administered it likewise at the Epiphany. Owing to the fact that women are barred from enjoying any species of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the question necessarily arose concerning their ability to bestow valid baptism. As to children of Protestants in the United States, Kenrick (no. The question becomes a practical one when converts to the Faith have to be dealt with. This interpretation—the one adopted by St. Chrysostom—has the advantage of giving the words `baptized’ and `dead’ their literal signification. For, in the beginning of Christianity, unions between the baptized and unbaptized were frequent, and they were certainly held valid. After that time it is found in some places even as late as the sixteenth century. The Waldenses and Cathari, and later the Anabaptists, rejected the doctrine that infants are capable of receiving valid baptism, and some sectarians at the present day hold the same opinion. A few, therefore, will suffice here. Moralists, however, state that in case of necessity, the baptism would probably be valid if the water were applied to any other principal part of the body, as the breast or shoulder. The Ritual also says that the father or mother should not baptize their own child, except in danger of death when no one else is at hand who could administer the sacrament. General Apologetics. Those who have no settled place of abode may be baptized by the pastor of any church they choose. Such persons are designated sponsores, offerentes, susceptores, fidejussores, and patrini. ), of Martene (De Ant. She makes laws concerning them only in so far as they hold relations with the subjects of the Church. vi) teaches that justification cannot be obtained, since the promulgation of the Gospel, without the laver of regeneration or the desire thereof (in voto). In the seventh century the Fourth Council of Toledo (633) approved the use of a single ablution in baptism, as a protest against the false trinitarian theories of the Arians, who seem to have given to the three-fold immersion a significance which made it imply three natures in the Holy Trinity. The contradictory of all these statements is to be held as the dogmatic teaching of the Church. 662, 4). We shall consider this aspect of the question first. 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