UPSC ha asked several questions from the Local Winds topic so this becomes important. Another type of warm wind (katabatic wind) occurs on the leeward side of the mountain ranges. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2 times. The cool dry air now starts to descend down the easterly slopes of the Rockies. While crossing the equator, these winds get deflected to their right under the effect of. Foehn Winds over the Alps A Foehn wind is a type of dry down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range. In which part of the tropical cyclone do torrential rains and high velocity winds blow and why. Down below near the land surface the air flows towards the equator as the easterlies. Nor'wester: wind that brings rain to the West Coast, and warm dry winds to the East Coast of New Zealand's South Island, caused by the moist prevailing winds being uplifted over the Southern Alps, often accompanied by a distinctive arched cloud pattern; Pampero (Argentina): very strong wind which blows in … Warm, dry European wind that flows down the side of mountains. Jan 13, 2021 - Winds And Pressure Belts - Physical Geography, UPSC, IAS. Body: Effect on farming: Longer crop growing season: Chinook in … Ascending air sometimes causes precipitation on the windward side of the mountains. The winds from the tropics converge at this low pressure zone. Its effects can be both favorable and unfavorable, depending upon the prevalent climate of … Body: Effect on farming: Longer crop growing season: Chinook in North America helps in the growth of wheat. Foehn and Chinook are still other types of local winds, passing over a mountain range, are forced to descend on the leeward side with the result that the air is heated and dried. Mistral is one of the local names given to such winds that blow from the Alps over France towards the Mediterranean Sea. Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed, and changing the wind circulation of the region. Which one of the following gases is not a natural element of the atmosphere ? The air at the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rises because of the convection currents caused by low pressure. Katabatic wind, wind that blows down a slope because of gravity. GDP deflator reflects the prices of all domestically produced goods and services in the economy. The westerlies are the winds blowing from the, The westerlies of the southern hemisphere are, The westerlies are best developed between, The poleward boundary of the westerlies is highly fluctuating. Winds like Loo, Mistral, Foehn, Bora. At the night the reversal of condition takes place. Foehn. A foehn wind is responsible for the grounding of a US Navy destroyer off Greenland's west coast in the Second World War novel The Ice Brothers by Sloan Wilson. The local winds are an important part of World geography. Warming and cooling of the Pacific Ocean is most important in terms of general atmospheric circulation. Air under the influence of both the pressure gradient force and Coriolis force tends to move parallel to isobars in conditions where friction is low (1000 meters above the surface of the Earth) and isobars are straight. While the pressure gradient force is from north to south, i.e. It is a very cold and dry wind with high velocity. Chinook (Foehn) Winds Warm, dry winds sometimes move down the east slopes of the Rockies, where they are called chinooks, and the Alps, where they are called ... by a light wind blowing into the city from the surrounding countryside. Discuss. They are initiated when mid- latitude cyclones pass to the southwest of the Alps. D-None of them is/are correct. Which one of the following gases is not a natural element of the atmosphere ? Foehn is a hot wind of local importance in the Alps. Gravity causes the air to accelerate down the mountain slopes and heat up. It produces sustained winds often exceeding 66 km/h (41 mph) / 18 m/s (36 kn), sometimes reaching 185 km/h (115 mph) / 51 m/s (100 kn). In the years when the ENSO is strong, large-scale variations in weather occur over the world. Thus, pressure gradient from sea to land is created and the wind blows from the sea to the land as the sea breeze. For example. Low pressure in turn occurs due to high insolation. It occurs at night, when the highlands radiate heat and are cooled. During the day the land heats up faster and becomes warmer than the sea. Due to rotation of the earth, in the Northern hemisphere This is known as Ferrel’s Law of Deflection. The wind. On Earth surface, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. When it descends down the leeward side of the slope the dry air gets warmed up by the. These winds now approach the Asian landmass as south-west monsoons. In mountainous regions, during the day the slopes get heated up and air moves upslope and to fill the resulting gap the air from the valley blows up the valley. UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. The Foehn is a warm, dry, gusty wind which occurs over the lower slopes on the lee side (the side which is not direct... Chinook wind: A warm, westerly wind found in western North America – Canada and the USA, when air from the Pacific blows over the Rocky Mountains and other upland areas. Local differences of temperature and pressure produce local winds. Foehn wind is a warm, dry and down-slope wind occurring on the leeward side of a mountain as a result of the adiabatic warming of the air descending after precipitating on the windward slope of the mountain. woodland Tree-dominated plant association in which the trees are spaced more widely apart than those of forests and do not have interlacing canopies. WINDS : The horizontal movement of air along the earth’s surface is called a Wind. It brings blizzards into southern France. Such winds are local in extent and are confined to the lowest levels of the troposphere. While crossing the equator, these winds get deflected to their right under the effect of Coriolis force. Primary References: NCERT Geography, Spectrum’s Geography [Amazon and Flipkart], Certificate Physical and Human Geography [Amazon and Flipkart], and Savindra Singh [Amazon and Flipkart], Filed Under: Climatology, Geography, Physical Geography, Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. the wind blowing from the west is called westerly. The mistral (Catalan: Mestral, Greek: Μαΐστρος, Italian: Maestrale, Maltese: Majjistral, Corsican: Maestral) is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean. (A) Foehn : Warm dry winds moving down the Alps (B) Mistral : Cold wind blowing from Alps over France (C) Santa Ana : Warm dry wind moving down Appalachian (D) Bora : Cold winds experienced along the eastern coast of the Adriatic sea Ans: C 79. The combined phenomenon of southern oscillation and El Nino is known as ENSO. Thus, the pressure gradient from sea to land is created and the wind blows from the sea to the land as the sea breeze. Some examples of local winds are discussed below. The eastern parts of the trade winds associated with the cool ocean currents are drier and more stable than the western parts of the ocean. As the windward side takes away whatever moisture there is in the incoming wind in the form of orographic precipitation, the air that descends on the leeward side is dry and warm (Katabatic Wind). Santa Ana winds: southern California; Shamal: a summer northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states; Simoom: strong, dry, desert wind that blows in the Sahara, Israel, Jordan, Syria, and the desert of Arabia SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [27th June 2018]- Day 3 1. Topics: Foehn wind • Meteorological phenomena • Meteorology • Mistral • Physical geography • Physical geography • Prevailing winds • Sea breeze • Southerly Buster • Sundowner winds • Thermal low • Trade winds • Winds. These Winds are called trade winds because of the fact that they helped the sea merchants in sailing their ships as their (of trade winds) direction remains more or less constant and regular. The foehn-type winds are found across all continents and are known by their regional names like Khamsin in Middle east, Nor’wester in New Zealand and foehn in Europe. The cool air, of the high plateaus and ice fields draining into the valley is called katabatic wind. Regional pressure gradient forces the air to ascend and cross the barrier. For example. Welcomed by cattlemen. Loo, Foehn and Chinook are warm and dry winds. These blow only during a particular period of the day or year in a small area. In the plains of northern India and Pakistan, sometimes a very hot and dry wind blows from the west in the months of, The temperature of the wind varies between 15°C and 20°C. Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers. Daily MCQ for UPSC or Other Exam (05th Sep.) ... B-Föhn wind, a warm air mass that originates in the African Sahara and moves north rapidly, periodically raising temperatures up to 10 °C (18 °F) in a short period of time, flows through Austria. The two most well- understood and significant winds for climate and human activities are, The trade winds are those blowing from the. This wind is known as the valley breeze. Such winds are sometimes also called fall winds; the spelling catabatic winds is also used. Trade winds are descending and stable in areas of their origin (sub-tropical high-pressure belt), and as they reach the equator, they become, The trade winds from two hemispheres meet at the equator, and. There is a different explanation for local winds near mountains. wind shear (vertical wind shear) Significant change in wind direction or speed in the vertical dimension. Foehn is a hot wind of local importance in the Alps. It brings blizzards into southern France. The warm water of the central Pacific Ocean slowly drifts towards South American coast and replaces the cool Peruvian current. Warm and Cold Winds: Wind is defined as air moving horizontally over the Earth’s surface. Thus, local winds and planetary winds have an important role in economic growth as well as maintaining of weather conditions. The general circulation of the atmosphere also affects the oceans. The large-scale winds of the atmosphere initiate large and slow moving currents of the ocean. This deflection in their ideally expected north-south direction is explained on the basis of Coriolis force and Farrel’s law. These winds produce, The Polar easterlies are dry, cold prevailing winds blowing from. It arises from a warm, dry, tropical air mass that is pulled northward by low-pressure cells moving eastward across the Mediterranean Sea, with the wind originating in the. Since they travel a long distance over a vast expanse of water, by the time they reach the south-western coast of India, they are over-saturated with moisture and cause heavy rainfall in India and neighboring countries. the wind blowing from the west is called westerly. The pattern of planetary winds depend on: latitudinal variation of atmospheric heating; the migration of belts following apparent path of the sun; the distribution of continents and oceans; The pattern of the movement of the planetary winds is called the. Therefore, over the land the air rises giving rise to a low pressure area, whereas the sea is relatively cool and the pressure over sea is relatively high. The land loses heat faster and is cooler than the sea. 1 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 1 Year from the date of purchase. The El Nino event is closely associated with the pressure changes in the Central Pacific and Australia. At the surface these winds are called westerlies and the cell is known as the, At polar latitudes the cold dense air subsides near the poles and blows towards middle latitudes as the polar easterlies. föhn wind (foehn wind) Generic term for warm, dry winds in the lee of a mountain range.It was originally used in the European Alps. Such winds are local in extent and are confined to the lowest levels of the troposphere. It is a strong, gusty, dry and warm wind which develops on the leeward side of a mountain range. In other words, the horizontal movement of air is called wind, which always blows from high pressure to low pressure areas. 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