Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, and she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions. Once elected, Charles V demanded that Francis give up Milan, which he proclaimed was an imperial fief. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. Francis Stefan of Lorraine succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings,his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Co… Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg. Portret van Frans van Lotharingen (Frans I), … In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. etc. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. He also took a great interest in the natural sciences. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria,Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. Updates? They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. etc. Francis II, (born February 12, 1768, Florence—died March 2, 1835, Vienna), the last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804–35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792–1830) and king of Bohemia (1792–1836). On February 1, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared. Britannica now has a site just for parents! Membership: Holy Roman Empire Association, Charter of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Heraldic Council of the Holy Roman Empire, Court of Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire, Council of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial immediacy of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Household of the Holy Roman Emperor, Powers and Titles of the Holy Roman Emperor, Order of the Ancient Nobility of the Four Emperors, Order of the Defeated Dragon - Ordo Draconum, Association of the Counts Arundell of Wardour, Jesus Christ - Jesus of Nazareth - Son of God, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Especially his mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. This particular affair was remarked upon in the letters and journals of visitors to the court and in those of his children. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. He was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. found: Ency. Born to Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine, Francis became the oldest surviving son of his father after the death of his brother Leopold Clement. Francis I., Emperor of Austria', circa 1804, . Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. From 1723 Francis, whose dynasty in Lorraine was closely connected with the Austrian Habsburgs, lived at the Viennese court of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. As a result Elisabeth son's could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita. Although nominally outranking his wife, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, the capable but easygoing Francis always was overshadowed by her strong personality. Coat of Arms of Francis I - Holy Roman Emperor 1745-1765. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" (locumtenens) of Hungary in 1732. The influence of Francis in government was inconsiderable except in economic matters. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Although nominally outranking his wife, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, the capable but easygoing … Franz Stephan von Lothringen (1708-1765), known as Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, married to Empress Maria Theresia. He hesitated three times (and laid down the feather before signing). Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria,Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. Maria Theresa and Francis I had sixteen children—their youngest daughter was the future queen consort of France, Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands. Francis I, (born Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine—died Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria), Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1745; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 to 1735 and grand duke of Tuscany from 1737. Another son was the Emperor Leopold II. Desc: Charles VII was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (who was however engaged in ruling the Austrian Netherlands), until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. During the war he was elected Holy Roman emperor after the death of the emperor Charles VII (the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria), who was one of his wife’s chief adversaries. English: HM Francis I ( 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) (born as François Stephen, later Francis III Stephen, Duke of Lorraine) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. However, his wife left him in charge of the financial affairs, which he managed well until his death. On December 17, 1738 the couple traveled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatiaand Bohemiaas Francis I. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Co… Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. In compensation, Francis was allowed to succeed the childless Gian Gastone, last of the Medici grand dukes of Tuscany. (Francis I, b. Francis I was the Holy Roman Emperor who along with his wife founded the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (1751–1825) and Marie Caroline of Austria (1752–1814). The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on May 4, 1736. Description: Continental School 18th Century royal portrait of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, oil on canvas. In 1519 Francis sought election as Holy Roman emperor but lost out to Charles of Habsburg, who already was the king of Spain and ruler of the Netherlands. They arrived on January 20, 1739. Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. On January 31, 1736 Francis had agreed to marry Maria Theresa. He also ruled as Francis I, the Emperor of Austria, and as Francis I, the King of Bohemia and Hungary. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) [1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He was very close to his brother and sister Anne Charlotte. Francis at the age of 15 in his hunting attire. Role Title Holding Repository; creatorOf: Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1708-1765. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriage… While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Media in category "Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. He is better remembered for his cultural interests. You will receive each autograph with a fine certificate of authenticity with a unique identification number. Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, and a real affection arose between them. 12/8/1708; d. 8/18/1765, Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1775; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 … Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; Scots: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) wis Haly Roman Emperor an Grand Duke o Tuscany, thou his wife effectively executit the real powers o those poseetions.Wi his wife, Maria Theresa, he wis the foonder o the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Omissions? Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. Elisabeth of Parma had also wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; Gian Gastone de' Medici was childless and was related to Elisabeth via her great grandmother Margherita de' Medici. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Sorry, your search returned zero results for "francis i, holy roman emperor". Though he had a happy child­hood sur­rounded by his many siblings, his fam­ily knew Fran­cis was likely to be a fu­ture Em­peror (his uncle Joseph had no sur­viv­ing issue from ei­ther of his two mar­riages), and so in 1784 the young Arch­duke was sent to the Im­pe­r­ial Co… He is buried in tomb number 55 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Fran­cis was a son of Em­peror Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daugh­ter of Charles III of Spain. Under its terms, Stanis?aw I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737. The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis I of Austria became Holy Roman Emperor in 1792. On January 24, 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law, Until then, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine. Francis II (German: Franz II. Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God electedRoman Emperor, always August, hereditaryEmperor of Austriaand he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. Brit., 15th ed. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French. As such, in 1729, he succeeded his father as the Duke of Lorraine. Charles was a member of the House of Wittelsbach, thus his reign as Holy Roman Emperor marked the end of three centuries of uninterrupted Habsburg imperial rule. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. At the age of 15, when he was brought to Vienna, he was established in the Silesian Duchy of Teschen, which had been mediatized and granted to his father by the emperor in 1722. From the personal collection of Maestro Raymond Leppard (1927-2019). Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. He was not excited about this position, but Maria wanted him closer to her. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. He also served as the first president of the German Confederationfollo… Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. He was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonor, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III, and wife of Charles Leopold of Lorraine, his grandfather. Francis and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. Jul 26, 2015 - Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. He was officially succeeded by his eldest son Joseph II although the real power remained with his wife. They married on February 12 in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. The last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria by marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. He led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars, and later joined the Second and Third Coalitions against Napoleon. With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Holy Roman Emperor. His marriage to Maria Theresa, who was Charles’s heiress, took place on Feb. 12, 1736. Francis I, (born Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine—died Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria), Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1745; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 to 1735 and grand duke of Tuscany from 1737. Fran­cis was born in Flo­rence, the cap­i­tal of Tus­cany, where his fa­ther reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. In 1744 Francis' brother Charles married a younger sister of Maria Theresa, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1718–1744). Francis was quite the philanderer and was known for his many indiscreet affairs, notably one with Maria Wilhelmina, Princess of Auersperg, who was thirty years his junior. 10. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry (Grand Lodge of England) at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. These arrangements were confirmed by the 1738 Treaty of Vienna. Francis I of Austria started out as Emperor Francis II (Franz II), the head of the Habsburg monarchy and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Maria Theresa mourned his death throughout the 15 years by which she survived him. Not to be confused with Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, later styled Francis I as Emperor of Austria. Born to Leopold II of Tuscany, he became the heir to Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor, who was his uncle. France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. 18th century Holy Roman Emperor from the Habsburg-Lorraine house. Napoleon defeated the Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. France, Sardinia, and Spain simultaneously opened the war against Austria in 1733 (. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Heavily indebted and on the verge of bankruptcy at the end of the seven years war, the Austrian Empire was in a better financial condition than France or England in the 1780s. When Maria Theresa succeeded Charles VI (Oct. 20, 1740), she immediately appointed her husband coregent. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. During the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), Maria Theresa, apprehensive for Francis’ life, refused his repeated demands to be allowed to defend her inheritance by leading the Austrian Army. Francis II was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ruling from 1792 until 1806. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. Emperor Charles VI favored the family, who, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. Corrections? When the War of the Polish Succession broke out in 1733, France used it as an opportunity to seize Lorraine, since France's prime minister, Cardinal Fleury, was concerned that, as a Habsburg possession, it would bring Austrian power too close to France. He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold Joseph, duke of Lorraine, and his wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, daughter of Philippe, duc d'Orléans. . Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Holy Roman Emperor. Francis II (German: Franz II. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Francis-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, Holy Roman Empire Association - Biography of Emperor Francis I. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French.Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. etc. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. He was a member of the Freemasons. Charles consented to it only on condition that Francis make the sacrifice required by the French in order to end the War of the Polish Succession, namely, the cession of Lorraine to Stanisław Leszczyński (Stanisław I), for whom the French had failed to secure Poland. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. Autograph signature to letter : Vienna, to Valerio Publicola of Santa Cruz, 1763 Mar. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. Alternative Title: Francis I of Austria. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, the latter’s domains would be united with Austria’s, and French plans for the acquisition of Lorraine would be thwarted. He died suddenly in his carriage while returning from the opera at Innsbruck on 18 August 1765. A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738. Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis. etc. Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncles and aunts: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Queen Marie Antoinette of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncle-by-marriage was King Louis XVI of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Elisabeth Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Anna Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor… The Emperor considered other possibilities (such as marrying her to the future Charles III of Spain) before announcing the engagement of the couple.
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