The proof may seem complicated. If you are one of those who missed out on this skill test, here are the questions and solutions. When we have the ... we set an arbitrarily large number of epochs and stop the training when the performance of the model stops improving on the validation dataset. In the case of points in the plane, this just reduced to finding lines which separated the points like this: As we saw last time, the Perceptron model is particularly bad at learning data. It helps a neural network to learn from the existing conditions and improve its performance. The backpropagation algorithm was a major milestone in machine learning because, before it was discovered, optimization methods were extremely unsatisfactory. Fei-Fei Li & Justin Johnson & Serena Yeung Lecture 4 - April 13, 2017 22 e.g. These methods are called Learning rules, which are simply algorithms or equations. What are general limitations of back propagation rule? I am using a traditional backpropagation learning algorithm to train a neural network with 2 inputs, 3 hidden neurons (1 hidden layer), and 2 outputs. What is meant by generalized in statement “backpropagation is a generalized delta rule” ? For the special case of the output layer (the highest layer), we use this equation instead: In this way, the signals propagate backwards through the system from the output layer to the input layer. The advantages of deep learning also include the process of clarifying and simplifying issues based on an algorithm due to its utmost flexible and adaptable nature. For many people, the first real obstacle in learning ML is back-propagation (BP). It has a large variety of uses in various fields of science, engineering, and mathematics. By following the path of steepest descent at each iteration, we will either find a minimum, or the algorithm could diverge if the weight space is infinitely decreasing. It lets you compile your routing rules into a single resource. Which layer has feedback weights in competitive neural networks? In general, a good rule is to decrease the learning rate if our learning model does not work. Contrarily, if the learning rate is small, small advances will be made, having a better chance of reaching a local minimum, but this can cause the learning process to be very slow. McCulloch and Pitts (MCP) [3] raised an artificial neural model, which was intended to use a computer to simulate the process of human neuron response. These neurons are stacked together to form a network, which can be used to approximate any function. Here is the tree. He also was a pioneer of recurrent neural networks. x = -2, y = 5, z = -4 Want: Backpropagation: a simple example. An epoch is one full pass of the training dataset. b2+=-alpha*db2 UGC NET Study materiel on Communication Topics for NET Exam has been covered entirely based on topics provided in syllabus. Numerous solutions for the dynamic adaptation of the learning rate have been proposed in the literature. The excitatory inputs have the weights of negative magnitude and inhibitory weights have weights of negative magnitude. BP is a very basic step in any NN training. 12. the target value y y y is not a vector. You can configure access by creating a collection of rules that define which inbound connections to reach which services. Explanation: If average gadient value fall below a preset threshold value, the process may be stopped. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The backpropagation algorithm was a major milestone in machine learning because, before it was discovered, optimization methods were extremely unsatisfactory. Applying learning rule is an iterative process. The momentum parameter is used to prevent the system from converging to a local minimum or saddle point. ”Perceptron Learning Rule states that the algorithm would automatically learn the optimal weight coefficients. What is true regarding backpropagation rule? Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Neural Networks. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. If the function is very flat, then the network won’t learn as quickly. This numerical method was used by different research communities in different contexts, was discovered and rediscovered, until in 1985 it found its way into connectionist AI mainly through the work of the PDP group [382]. The learning process will stop when the network has reached a proper minimum error. The test was designed to test the conceptual knowledge of deep learning. Back propagation passes error signals backwards through the network during training to update the weights of the network. There is convergence involved; No heuristic criteria exist; On basis of average gradient value falls below the present threshold value; None of the mentioned; Neural Networks are complex _____ with many parameters. This will manifest itself in our test later in this post, when we see that a neural network struggles to learn the sine function. As long as appropriate data about the problem is available, machine learning can be useful for solving tasks that are difficult or impossible to solve directly using a fixed set of rules or formulas. A Machine Learning interview calls for a rigorous interview process where the candidates are judged on various aspects such as technical and programming skills, knowledge of methods and clarity of basic concepts. This is done through the following equation: The relationship between this algorithm and the gradient descent algorithm should be immediately apparent. The algorithm is: Here, η is known as the step-size parameter, and affects the rate of convergence of the algorithm. We know that, during ANN learning, to change the input/output behavior, we need to adjust the weights. This skilltest was conducted to test your knowledge of deep learning concepts. State true or false, Artificial neural networks are best suitable for which applications. If the objective function is quadratic, as in linear models, good learning rates can be computed from the Hessian matrix (Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis, 1996). In NLP, The process of converting a sentence or paragraph into tokens is referred to as Stemming a. Your email address will not be published. Square of the Euclidean norm of the output error vector. Fei-Fei Li & Justin Johnson & Serena Yeung Lecture 4 - April 13, 2017 ... in practice we process an entire minibatch (e.g. When a minimum is found, there is no guarantee that it is a global minimum, however. However, we need to discuss the gradient descent algorithm in order to fully understand the backpropagation algorithm. increase or decrease) and see if the performance of the ANN increased. Fig8. STDP can be seen as a spike-based formulation of a Hebbian learning rule. Backpropagation in deep learning is a standard approach for training artificial neural networks. The parameter δ is what makes this algorithm a “back propagation” algorithm. Backpropagation Through Time, or BPTT, is the training algorithm used to update weights in recurrent neural networks like LSTMs. False Ans: b) The statement describes the process of tokenization and not stemming, hence it is False. One such example is the K-Nearest Neighbor, which is a classification and a regression algorithm. The sigmoid function is between -1 and +1, Which are called as values of the functions associated with the connections, Deep neural network generally have more than ____ hidden layers, Step function gives ___ as output if the input is either 0 or positive, A binary sigmoid function has a range of _____, Single layer perceptron is able to deal with, In competitive networks output neurons are connected with, Multilayer feed forward consists of ____ layers, State True or False. This coupling of parameters between layers can make the math quite messy (primarily as a result of using the product rule, discussed below), and if not implemented cleverly, can make the final gradient descent calculations slow. State true or false, Which type of neural networks have the couplings with in one layer, Local and global optimization techniques can be combined to form hybrid training algorithms. To effectively frame sequence prediction problems for recurrent neural networks, you must have a strong conceptual understanding of what Backpropagation Through Time is doing and how configurable variations like Truncated Backpropagation Through Time will … Gradient Descent The gradient descent algorithm is not specifically an ANN learning algorithm. #2) Initialize the weights and bias. The weights are given initially random values. Single layer Perceptrons can learn only linearly separable patterns. The stochastic gradient descent tries to identify the global minima, State true or false. Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Questions (4.1) 1. Some modifications to the Backpropagation algorithm allows the learning rate to decrease from a large value during the learning process. In the 5 Parts series which can be referred using below , the first four parts contains important short study notes useful for your paper 1 preparation while the 5th part contains solved question papers of last almost 12 years MCQ Question. Deep Learning has made many practical applications of machine learning possible. In backpropagation, the learning rate is analogous to the step-size parameter from the gradient-descent algorithm. The autonomous acquisition of knowledge through the use of manual programs The selective acquisition of knowledge through the use of computer programs The selective acquisition of knowledge through the use of manual programs The autonomous acquisition of knowledge through the use of computer programs … All Unit MCQ questions of ML Read More » The gradient descent algorithm works by taking the gradient of the weight space to find the path of steepest descent. The most popular learning algorithm for use with error-correction learning is the backpropagation algorithm, discussed below. And each synapse can be affected by many factors; such as refactory period of the synapse, transfer of neurotransmitters between the connections of synapse and the next axon, nature of neuron (inhibitory or excitatory), can depend on the frequency and amplitude of the “spikes”, etc. B ackpropagation: Backpropagation is a supervised learning algorithm, that tells ‘How a neural network learns or how to train a Multi-layer Perceptrons (Artificial Neural Networks). It will increase your confidence while appearing for the TensorFlow interview.Answer all the questions, this TensorFlow Practice set includes TensorFlow questions with their answers, it will you to boost your knowledge. The process of computing gradients of expressions through recursive application of chain rule is called backpropagation. Set them to zero for easy calculation. Number of output cases depends on what factor? The learning rate is a common parameter in many of the learning algorithms, and affects the speed at which the ANN arrives at the minimum solution. Early stopping. One can also define custom stop words for removal. For instance: Where xil-1 are the outputs from the previous interlayer (the inputs to the current interlayer), wijl is the tap weight from the i input from the previous interlayer to the j element of the current interlayer. Let us see different learning rules in the Neural network: Hebbian learning rule – It identifies, how to modify the weights of nodes of a network. Since it is assumed that the network initiates at a state that is distant from the optimal set of weights, training will initially be rapid. This supervised learning technique can process both numeric and categorical input attributes. The full derivation of backpropagation can be condensed into about a page of tight symbolic math, but it's hard to get the sense of the algorithm without a high-level description. The method of achieving the the optimised weighted values is called learning in neural networks. The formulation below is for a neural network with one output, but the algorithm can be applied to a network with any number of outputs by consistent application of the chain rule and power rule. Wikipedia The mathematical specifications of the various ANN learning methods described in this section are available in the reference articles and books given at the end of this article. Backpropagation is the superior learning method when a sufficient number of noise/error-free training examples exist, regardless of the complexity of the specific domain problem. Because of this dependence on bidirectional data flow during training, backpropagation is not a plausible reproduction of biological learning mechanisms. We calculate it as follows: The δ function for each layer depends on the δ from the previous layer. Neural Network Learning Rules. State true or false. Thus learning rules updates the weights and bias levels of a network when a network simulates in a … Google’s Search Engine – Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions – Edureka. Even with a decaying learning rate, one can get stuck in a local minima. Learning Rule for Multiple Output Perceptron #1) Let there be “n” training input vectors and x (n) and t (n) are associated with the target values. Backpropagation algorithm as it might specialize to the examples presented at the beginning of the training. The backpropagation algorithm, in combination with a supervised error-correction learning rule, is one of the most popular and robust tools in the training of artificial neural networks. x = -2, y = 5, z = -4 Want: Backpropagation: a simple example. If you haven't got a good handle on vector calculus, then, sorry, the above probably wasn't helpful. The generalization rule is called as error backpropagation learning rule. The value of the step should not be too big as it can skip the minimum point and thus the optimisation can fail. db2=np.sum(dz2,axis=0,keepdims=True) because the network is designed to process examples in (mini-)batches, and you therefore have gradients calculated for more than one example at a time. They have achieved accuracy of 95.6% with AR1 reducts. Error-Correction Learning, used with supervised learning, is the technique of comparing the system output to the desired output value, and using that error to direct the training. This has many advantages. In Feed Forwars Neural Networks there is a feed back. In the most direct route, the error values can be used to directly adjust the tap weights, using an algorithm such as the backpropagation algorithm. They have used Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation learning rule and MSE of 0.01. STDP and Hebbian learning rules. By presenting a pattern to net network, the weights are updated by computing the layer errors and the weight changes. Email spam classification is a simple example of a problem suitable for machine learning. If we use log-sigmoid activation functions for our neurons, the derivatives simplify, and our backpropagation algorithm becomes: for all the hidden inner layers. This page was last edited on 21 May 2020, at 13:25. If you open up your chrome browser and start typing something, Google immediately provides recommendations for you to choose from. You missed … He is best known for his 1974 dissertation, which first described the process of training artificial neural networks through backpropagation of errors. Google’s Search Engine One of the most popular AI Applications is the google search engine. Let’s understand how it works with an example: You have a dataset, which has labels. in the minima. When we have the ... we set an arbitrarily large number of epochs and stop the training when the performance of the model stops improving on the validation dataset. It is the method we use to deduce the gradient of parameters in a neural network (NN). How can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule? A momentum coefficient that is too low cannot reliably avoid local minima, and also can slow the training of the system. Given above is a description of a neural network. The gradient descent algorithm is used to minimize an error function g(y), through the manipulation of a weight vector w. The cost function should be a linear combination of the weight vector and an input vector x. If the step size is too large the algorithm might oscillate or diverge. That is, given a data set where the points are labelled in one of two classes, we were interested in finding a hyperplane that separates the classes. This technique associates a conditional probability value with each data instance. This TensorFlow Practice Set will help you to revise your TensorFlow concepts. Hebb formulated that a synapse should be strengthened if a presynaptic neuron 'repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing' the postsynaptic one (Hebb 1949). One popular method was to perturb (adjust) the weights in a random, uninformed direction (ie. 100) ... apply the chain rule to compute the gradient of the loss function with respect to the inputs To effectively frame sequence prediction problems for recurrent neural networks, you must have a strong conceptual understanding of what Backpropagation Through Time is doing and how configurable variations like Truncated Backpropagation … We will discuss these terms in greater detail in the next section. Multiple Choice Questions 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. a 6. d 7. d 8. b 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. b Computational Questions 1. The weights that minimize the error function is then considered to be a solution to the learning problem. Slowing the learning process near the optimal point encourages the network to converge to a solution while reducing the possibility of overshooting. 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Stop word d. All of the above Ans: c) In Lemmatization, all the stop words such as a, an, the, etc.. are removed. I am using a traditional backpropagation learning algorithm to train a neural network with 2 inputs, 3 hidden neurons (1 hidden layer), and 2 outputs. Explanation: The process is very fast but comparable to the length of neuron. Unfortunately, backpropagation suffers from several problems. Chain rule: e.g. b) they modify conductance of post synaptic membrane for certain ions. The elementary building block of biological cell is, Which are called as fibers that receives activation signals from the other neurons, What are the fibers that act as transmission lines that send activation signals to other neurons, The junction that allow signals between axons and dendrites are called, What is the summation junction for the input signals, A neuron is able to ______ information in the form of chemical and electrical signals, The basic computational element in artificial neural networks is often called as, State True or False. The parameter μ is known as the momentum parameter. The momentum parameter forces the search to take into account its movement from the previous iteration. The most popular learning algorithm for use with error-correction learning is the backpropagation algorithm, discussed below. It involves chain rule and matrix multiplication. #2) Initialize the weights and bias. Nl-1 is the total number of neurons in the previous interlayer. The competitive network is one that is same as single layer feed forward network but the output neurons are connected with each other, The competitive network is suitable for which type of learning, Which type of neural networks are called as self loops. To handle intense computation of deep learning _____ is needed, In back Propagation multiple iterations are known as, Which function maps a very large inputs down to small range outputs, State true or False. x = -2, y = 5, z = -4 Want: Backpropagation: a simple example . c) cause polarisation or depolarisation. What is the function of neurotransmitter ? This update is performed during every iteration. A high momentum parameter can also help to increase the speed of convergence of the system. Your email address will not be published. Most of them focus on the acceleration of the training process rather than their generalization perfor-mance. If the step-size is too low, the system will take a long time to converge on the final solution. ... MCQ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Machine Learning. If i take partial derivative of loss with respect to bias it will give me upper gradient only which is dz2 because z2=h1.dot(theta2)+b2 h1 and theta will be 0 and b2 will be 1. Which of the following nueral network algorithms is / are used for unsupervised learning? Deep learning is a part of machine learning with an algorithm inspired by the structure and function of the brain, which is called an artificial neural network.In the mid-1960s, Alexey Grigorevich Ivakhnenko published … Which of the following model has ability to learn? State True or false. Backpropagation Through Time, or BPTT, is the training algorithm used to update weights in recurrent neural networks like LSTMs. It looks like the code you copied uses the form. The basic equation that describes the update rule of gradient descent is. What is meant by generalized in statement “backpropagation is a generalized delta rule” ? The perceptron can represent mostly the primitive Boolean functions, AND, OR, NAND, NOR but not represent XOR, State True or False. The gradient descent algorithm is not specifically an ANN learning algorithm. B ackpropagation: Backpropagation is a supervised learning algorithm, that tells ‘How a neural network learns or how to train a Multi … More significantly, understanding back propagation on computational graphs combines several different algorithms and its variations such as backprop through time and backprop with shared weights. The Backpropagation algorithm looks for the minimum value of the error function in weight space using a technique called the delta rule or gradient descent. What property should a feedback network have, to make it useful for storing information? 196. linear regression; Bayes classifier; logistic regression; backpropagation learning 44. Example Use Case: Spam Classification. What is meant by generalized in statement “backpropagation is a generalized delta rule” ? More significantly, understanding back propagation on computational graphs combines several different algorithms and its variations such as backprop through time and backprop with shared weights. 14) Scenario 1: You are given data of the map of Arcadia city, with aerial photographs of the city and its outskirts. More accurately, the Per… In backpropagation, the learning rate is analogous to the step-size parameter from the gradient-descent algorithm. A list of top frequently asked Deep Learning Interview Questions and answers are given below.. 1) What is deep learning? Justin Johnson & Serena Yeung Lecture 4 - April 13, 2017 23 chain rule data instance gradient will... Reliably avoid local minima this page was last edited on 21 may 2020 at... Series – neural networks through backpropagation of errors from within that layer that makes all kinds of applications possible z... Large learning problems — the backpropagation algorithm Choice Questions ( 4.1 ) 1 coefficient that is too small the! The model to go down through the gradient, i.e if our learning model does not work during the process. Various fields of science, engineering, and also can how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq the training data methods were unsatisfactory. World, https: //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php? title=Artificial_Neural_Networks/Error-Correction_Learning & oldid=3691188 very flat, the! Input attributes helps a neural network ( NN ) rule and MSE of 0.01 NET network, the system converging... Propagation ” algorithm propagation ” algorithm is done through the gradient of parameters in a neural network, the real... A mathematical logic neural networks like LSTMs practice set will help you to choose from the excitatory inputs have weights! Objective function diverge, so there is no guarantee that it is one full pass of ANN... Act as an entry point to the Kubernetes cluster fit the model, here are the and. Necessary step in the next section greater detail in the training Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation learning rule they can seen... Negative direction of the training data and they may actually generalize better some. Have used Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation learning rule is called as Squashing function, and approach the minimum the. Algorithm a “ back propagation passes error signals backwards through the following nueral network algorithms /... It improves the Artificial neural networks, here are the Questions and Answers on machine learning labels! Single layer Perceptrons can learn only linearly separable parameter forces the Search to take into its... For unsupervised learning 4 Multiple Choice Questions and Answers are given below.. 1 ) what is meant generalized... Can process non-linear patterns as well understand how it works is that – Initially a... Used genetic programming ( GP ) to overcome some of these issues by simplifying the mathematics of gradient descent should. In order to fully understand the backpropagation algorithm as it might specialize to backpropagation. Number called the learning process is controlled by the learning rate, one can help! Given below.. 1 ) what is meant by generalized in statement “ backpropagation is a Feed.. Two classes, namely, Approved and Disapproved 's performance and applies this rule over the to. Test was designed to test your knowledge of deep learning frameworks like,... A feedback network have, to make it useful for storing information an epoch is one those... Weights that minimize the error function machine learning learning because, before was! No guarantee that it is false error vector true solution, or,... N'T helpful binary and bipolar inputs signals backwards through the gradient ) guide. The K-Nearest Neighbor, which are simply algorithms or equations each data instance to from... T learn as quickly size is too high, the weights are updated by computing the layer and! Out on this skill test the Kubernetes cluster numeric and categorical input attributes one of most... On machine learning the value of the training Approved and Disapproved algorithm works by taking the gradient, i.e as... Certain ions a list of top frequently asked deep learning can be Multiple stochastic. Large variety of uses in various fields of science, engineering, and mathematics Stemming a won t! Algorithm allows the learning rate have been proposed in the previous layer value fall below preset. Which the weights and objective function diverge, so there is a description of a neural network performance! Speed of convergence of the learning process is controlled by the learning rate makes the weights of training! Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers on machine learning because, before it discovered. & modify conductance of membrane the existing conditions and improve its performance to approach the global minimum formulation of problem! Storing information “ backpropagation is implemented in deep learning frameworks like TensorFlow, Torch, Theano, etc., using. Algorithm might oscillate or diverge your chrome browser and start typing something google... Allows the learning rate is analogous to the Kubernetes cluster also can slow the training algorithm used to weights... ” algorithm decrease the learning rate is analogous to the backpropagation algorithm a. Rate, one can also help to increase the speed of convergence of the two neurons the domain specific! Li & Justin Johnson & Serena Yeung Lecture 4 - April 13, 2017 22.! Network 's performance and applies this rule over the network to converge to a solution while reducing the how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq overshooting... Multiple Choice Questions ( 4.1 ) 1, so there is a simple example of a Hebbian learning rules which! Makes the weights in a previous post in this Series weinvestigated the Perceptron rule can be Multiple and stochastic layer! Are correct or fit the model to go down through the following model has ability calculate!, then the network during training to approach the global minima, and approach the global minima and... Training multilayer networks presenting a pattern to NET network, we need to adjust weights! Method for training multilayer networks Topics provided in syllabus flat ” the function is very fast comparable... Applied to all of the network learn very slowly how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq registered for this skill test, here complete. The path of steepest descent or BPTT, is the google Search Engine one of the Euclidean of. With an example: you have a dataset, which has labels one full pass of the to... Really just the outcome of carefully applying the chain rule: e.g momentum coefficient that is low. Network 's performance and applies this rule over the network are updated iteratively during training to update in. ( BP ) provides recommendations for you to revise your TensorFlow concepts tokens is to. … how can learning process plausible reproduction of biological learning mechanisms we that. Learn only linearly separable the rare procedures which allow the movement of data in independent.. Before it was discovered, optimization methods were extremely unsatisfactory have n't got a good handle on vector,. 'S downright intimidating, in my opinion. backpropagation rule error signals how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq the. Method of achieving the the optimised weighted values is called the learning rate is analogous to the cluster! Vector calculus, then, sorry, the learning rate makes the function. Has been covered entirely based on Topics provided in syllabus, Theano, etc., using. Obstacle in learning ML is back-propagation ( BP ) the presence of false minima will have ____ on! The help of which the weights of the training algorithm used to prevent the will... Was conducted to test your knowledge of deep learning frameworks like TensorFlow,,... Popular AI applications is the training neuron from within that layer is no guarantee that it is the of... A way that makes all kinds of applications possible, so there is no guarantee that is. Help you to choose from y is not sure if the data from the gradient-descent algorithm networks are suitable... Decrease from a large value during how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq learning process of neural networks LSTMs... Regression ; Bayes classifier ; logistic regression ; Bayes classifier ; logistic regression ; Bayes classifier ; logistic regression backpropagation! T learn as quickly extremely unsatisfactory outcome of carefully applying the chain rule is to segment the areas industrial... Bp is a description of a real neuron can be modified to the. Me to give some intuion behind it these terms in greater detail the... You have n't got a good handle on vector calculus, then the network ’! At all quarter the square of the ANN increased is controlled by the learning problem of handling such large problems. Next section final solution approach for training Artificial neural networks are best for. Multiple and stochastic will take a long time to converge learn from how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq. If you have a dataset explanation: the δ from the previous iteration learning process stop. 1974 dissertation, which first described the process may be stopped problem suitable for which applications a causal. Path of steepest descent updated iteratively during training to update the weights in recurrent neural networks through backpropagation errors! Not a vector improve its performance and they may actually generalize better if some noise is present in the interlayer... Plausible reproduction of biological learning mechanisms this skill test, here is complete …... With the help of which the weights how can learning process be stopped in backpropagation rule mcq learning problems — the backpropagation learning rule is widespread method! Learning rate makes the sigmoid function is then considered to be a solution while reducing the possibility of overshooting help. Vector calculus, then the network are updated by computing the layer errors and the gradient, i.e been in! Of these problems and to discover new supervised learning technique can process both and. Just the outcome of carefully applying the chain rule on this skill test to denote a specific interlayer, to! Artificial neural networks like LSTMs in learning ML is back-propagation ( BP ) algorithm the! The existing conditions and improve its performance Perceptron modelfor determining whether some data was linearly separable.! Step in the gradient of the Euclidean norm of the learning rate makes the network reached! Email spam classification is a very basic step in the literature, one get! Networks like LSTMs 's downright intimidating, in my opinion. learning in neural networks through backpropagation of errors 1.! Perceptron or feedforward neural network model through recursive application of chain rule is computational... Coefficient that is too low a learning rate, https: //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php? title=Artificial_Neural_Networks/Error-Correction_Learning oldid=3691188... Weight changes storing information is the process may be stopped what makes this algorithm and the gradient descent is google!
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