warming the atmosphere of Mars, plus indications of a radically different 1994: The Alliance of Small Island States – many of whom fear they will disappear beneath the waves as sea levels rise – adopt a demand for 20% cuts in emissions by the year 2005. Global warming trend since late 19th century reported. This article appeared in print under the title: which show a temperature rise of a few degrees for doubled CO2. The first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report published in 1990. The time span of 1920–25 becomes the era of large-scale petroleum development, beginning with the opening of Texas and Persian Gulf oil fields. =>Models (GCMs) 1956 Ewing and Donn offer a feedback model for abrupt climate change. 500 million years of climate change Ice core data for the past 400,000 years, with the present at right. Researchers link warming to a record US hurricane season, accelerated melting of Arctic sea ice and Siberian permafrost. Decisions postponed until at least May 2001. 2005 is the second warmest year on record. of large quantities of methane =>Other gases. as such, and all the important discoveries (the ice ages, the infrared can bring swift and radical climate change. =>Simple models, Plass calculates that adding CO2 to the atmosphere 2000: IPCC scientists re-assess likely future emissions and warn that, if things go badly, the world could warm by 6°C within a century. =>Public opinion, 2004 An apparent pause or "hiatus" in global warming of the atmosphere since 1998, publicized by skeptics, is explained; the world is still warming (as following years would confirm). Ewing and Donn offer a feedback model for abrupt climate change. 2008: The polar bear is listed on the US endangered species act, because of the risk to its habitat from climate change. The conference also reports that gases other than CO2, such as methane, ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide, also contribute to warming. 1970s: Agency spark conflict; greenhouse warming becomes a factor in mainstream =>Simple models and US public opinion. =>CO2 greenhouse, 1958 to tell politicians and the public that climate science is too uncertain 1988: Global warming attracts worldwide headlines after scientists at Congressional hearings in Washington DC blame major US drought on its influence. and other satellites, designed chiefly for weather prediction, provide Al Gore and the IPCC are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, while a UK judge criticises An Inconvenient Truth for containing nine “factual inaccuracies“. =>Modern temp's, Qualms about arbitrariness in computer models diminish as teams model 1996: At the second meeting of the Climate Change Convention, the US agrees for the first time to legally binding emissions targets and sides with the IPCC against influential sceptical scientists. We're running out of lithium for batteries – can we use salt instead? International conference produces Kyoto Protocol, setting targets for industrialized nations to =>Public opinion, Copenhagen conference fails to negotiate binding agreements: end of hopes of avoiding dangerous future climate change. 2001: The new US president, George W Bush, renounces the Kyoto Protocol because he believes it will damage the US economy. This study shows how much more there is to learn about climate change and its effect that will still merely be bubbling under the surface by 2100. 2007: The fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC places the blame for global warming firmly on humankind, estimates the cost of stabilising greenhouse gases at $1830 billion, and calls for governments to begin planning adaptive measures. Phillips produces a convincing computer model of the global atmosphere. Average temperatures drop for two years before rising again. due to pollution, has retarded arrival of greenhouse warming, but dimming 1709: As the Little Ice Age comes to an end, Europe experiences a freakishly cold winter. Some of the most extreme scenarios are left out of the report, leading to accusations that it has been watered down. Italy and Switzerland agree to redraw their border in response to melting glaciers. Toyota introduces Prius in Japan, first mass-market electric Ahead of the Paris conference on climate change, the EU submitted its intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). don't fit into any of the other essays: scientific-technical matters that Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention imposes international restrictions The IPCC’s fifth assessment report published in 2013. =>International. to small perturbations. The health benefits of sunlight: Can vitamin D help beat covid-19? =>CO2 greenhouse The level damage they will cause. of global warming on storm intensity. In February, climateprediction.net, in conjunction with the BBC’s climate change season, launches its most realistic investigation thus far of projected climate changes in the 21 century. 2012 industrial up greenhouse gas emission, while better agriculture and sanitation speed =>International, Ice-core and biology studies confirm living ecosystems give climate Fossil-fuel and other U.S. industries form Global Climate Coalition Neutrino experiments and new astrophysical theories suggest that the Sun politics. This phrase included climate change as well as changes in land use, ocean productivity and pollution. 1970s: Series of studies by the US Department of Energy increases concerns about future global warming. the chief climate risk in the next century. The marine isotope stages (MIS) are often used to express dating within the Quaternary. Following is a timeline ahead of the November 29-December 10 meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Cancun, Mexico. Coal, railroads, and land clearing speed would raise sea levels catastrophically. Oil embargo and price rise bring first "energy crisis". IBM Personal Computer introduced. =>Government, 1979 Third IPCC report states baldly that global warming, unprecedented =>Climate cycles, 1967 Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Climate FAQ, Katharine Hayhoe xkcd.com is best viewed with Netscape Navigator 4.0 or below on a Pentium 3±1 emulated in Javascript on an Apple IIGS at a screen resolution of 1024x1. President Putin announces in May that Russia will back the Protocol. =>Impacts =>Public opinion. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9912-timeline-climate-change Researchers find collapse of West Antarctic ice sheet may be irreversible, bringing meters of sea-level rise over future centuries. Keeling accurately measures CO2 =>Public opinion, 1975 1992: Climate Change Convention, signed by 154 nations in Rio, agrees to prevent “dangerous” warming from greenhouse gases and sets initial target of reducing emissions from industrialised countries to 1990 levels by the year 2000. =>Public opinion, 1990 The meeting also adopts a series of flexibility measures, allowing countries to meet their targets partly by trading emissions permits, establishing carbon sinks such as forests to soak up emissions, and by investing in other countries. Meanwhile, the US government says it will not ratify the agreement unless it sees evidence of “meaningful participation” in reducing emissions from developing countries. 1995: The hottest year recorded to date. crucial parameters in global computer models =>Models (GCMs) — Studies The synthesis report warns of “abrupt and irreversible” climate change. emissions; UK Prime Minister Thatcher is first major leader to call for 2019 News of disasters (tropical cyclones, wildfires, etc.) =>Rapid change, Strong global warming since mid-1970s is reported, with 1981 the warmest 1914-1918 World War I; governments learn to mobilize and control First IPCC report says world has been warming and future warming seems Climate Crisis: Our Changing World is a brand new digital series prioritising the conversation around climate change and inviting you to join … 2003: Globally it is the third hottest year on record, but Europe experiences the hottest summer for at least 500 years, with an estimated 30,000 fatalities as a result. climate in the past.=>Venus & Mars, 1972 Even the coldest years in the 1980s were warmer than the warmest years of the 1880s. The vast majority of its timeline, up through the year 1850, is based on mostly Northern Hemisphere temperature approximations. 1939-1945 Boulder, Colorado meeting on causes of climate change: Lorenz and others UNEP organized an internal seminar in January to identify environmental sectors that might be sensitive to climate change. Carbon dioxide emissions are found to be rising faster than in the 1990s, and new evidence bolsters the iconic “hockey stick” graph. the history of climate change science. Before the 1950s there were practically no global warming studies Greenland ice cores suggest that great climate changes (at least Some climatologists predict a new ice age. First Earth Day. Eric Steig and colleagues show that Antarctica is warming. Fourier calculates that the Earth would be far colder if it lacked likely. Scientific interest in greenhouse effect wanes. of fallout from nuclear weapons tests give improved picture of circulation greenhouse effect warming, declares that serious warming is likely in Level of CO2 in the atmosphere reaches 350 ppm. of rice paddies and other biological and agricultural entities show emission =>Government, 1974 US agencies, including NASA, are accused of trying to censor climate experts. =>Rapid change, Warming observed in ocean basins; match with computer models gives a Studies suggest a possibility of collapse of Antarctic ice sheets, which but that did have a significant influence on climate change studies. up population growth. =>Public opinion, 2005 set by small orbital shifts, suggesting that the climate system is sensitive Extreme weather costs an estimated record of $60 billion this year. Meanwhile Russia blows hot and cold over Kyoto. =>International, Excerpts from stolen e-mails of climate scientists fuel public skepticism. =>International, National Academy panel sees a "paradigm shift" in scientific Keeling soon finds a regular year-on-year rise. went up and down together through past ice ages, pointing to powerful Mean global temperature is 14.8°C, the warmest Warnings about environmental effects of airplanes lead to investigations =>International, Revelle finds that CO2 produced by humans will =>Radiation math, 1968 China overtakes the United States as the world’s biggest emitter of CO2. confirm extraordinary warming trend. slowly penetrating the oceans, reveals deep circulation patterns =>The oceans — Studies This is a reference list of miscellaneous significant developments that 1979: First World Climate Conference adopts climate change as major issue and calls on governments “to foresee and prevent potential man-made changes in climate.”. 1963 In April the US Supreme Court rules that the EPA does have the authority to regulate carbon dioxide emissions. in funding. =>International, Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover found Climate scientists (although not the public) recognize that even if all greenhouse gas emissions could be halted immediately, global warming will continue for millennia. Ocean geologists find huge deposits of methane-bearing ices in the world’s from solar influences. Mitchell reports downturn of global temperatures since the early 1940s.=>Modern temp's. =>CO2 greenhouse. From the Earth Summit to the Paris Agreement, discover the most important events in the history of climate change negotiations in chronological order. =>Government, 1970 of a century in the distant past. =>Other gases, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is established. 1987: Warmest year since records began. year on record. twice as fast as expected, from rise of methane and other trace greenhouse Advanced economies are increasingly A straightforward explanation of Climate Change: the heat from human emissions is roughly equal to exploding 400,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs every day. by National Academy Panel. the rate of ocean turnover =>CO2 greenhouse — Development of digital computers A major study suggests that humanity can emit no more than 1 trillion tonnes of carbon, if we are to avoid temperature rises of 2°C or more. =>Simple models, 1859 around 11,000 years ago. =>Simple models, Nimbus III satellite begins to provide comprehensive global atmospheric =>Government, 1955 =>International, Mariner 9 spacecraft finds a great dust storm Bryson The time from roughly 15,000 to 5,000 BC was a time of transition, and swift and extensive environmental change, as the planet was moving from an Ice age, towards an interstadial (warm period). rocks and the ocean floor, provide a time-marker for climate changes =>Climate cycles — Attempts to coordinate climate research in US end with an inadequate Hollywood blockbuster The Day After Tomorrow bases its plot on an exaggerated climate change scenario. 1827: French polymath Jean-Baptiste Fourier predicts an atmospheric effect keeping the Earth warmer than it would otherwise be. energy. , published 16 May 2009, Review: Stephen Jay Gould and the Politics of Evolution, unusually strong North Atlantic Oscillation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, first full meeting of the Climate Change Convention, second meeting of the Climate Change Convention, establishing carbon sinks such as forests, Australia joins the US in reneging on the deal, climate change at least doubled the risk of the heatwave happening, links the 2003 heatwave to global warming, Australian lungfish has largest genome of any animal sequenced so far, Covid-19 news: UK hospitals ‘like a war zone’ as deaths hit new record, People in Scotland to be asked about reintroducing lynx to the country, Quantum internet signals beamed between drones a kilometre apart, Dinosaur found in Argentina may be largest land animal ever. Telescope studies show a greenhouse effect raises temperature of the atmosphere provides information useful for setting Change, but US blocks calls for serious action. formation, soil moisture, etc.) The nature of the evidence for climate change is explained, as are the principal mechanisms that have caused climate change throughout the history of Earth. arose altogether independently of the scientific fields covered, and are agreements to restrict emissions.=> International, Antarctic ice cores show that CO2 and temperature Election of Reagan brings backlash against environmental not be readily absorbed by the oceans. external to the science itself. The Green Climate Fund, a $100 billion fund to assist developing countries in mitigating and adapting to climate change, is also established. Conference in Rio de Janeiro produces UN Framework Convention on Climate foster worries that human technology can bring world-wide disaster =>Public opinion — Strengthened environmental movement encourages Finally, a detailed description is given of climate change over many different timescales, ranging from a typical human life span to all of geologic time. Calculations suggest that feedback with water vapor could make the climate =>International, Reports of the breaking up of Antarctic ice shelves and other signs of the climate, raising confidence in models that incorporate aerosols and show future greenhouse warming. Many experts warn that damage from climate change is arriving at a faster pace than was anticipated just a few years earlier. At a pivotal climate meeting held in Exeter, UK, scientists warn that the west Antarctic ice sheet is starting to collapse. =>Biosphere, 2001 as later measured in ancient ice, is about 290 ppm (parts per million). on a regional scale) can occur in the space of a single decade. A "Super El Niño" makes this an exceptionally warm year, equaled in later years but not clearly exceeded until 2014. =>Venus & Mars, 1960 Military grand strategy is largely driven by a struggle to control Mean global temperature (1850-1890) is roughly 13.7°C. reduce greenhouse gas emissions if enough nations sign onto a treaty (rejected by US Senate in advance). Launch of Soviet Sputnik satellite. =>Climate cycles, 1938 Asked if he still believes climate change is a hoax, Trump said on CBS’ 60 Minutes, “Something’s changing, and it’ll change back again. 1870-1910 The 1980s turn out to be the hottest decade on record, with seven of the eight warmest years recorded up to 1990. 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